Abstract #M77

# M77
A survey on commercial US manufactured direct-salted block Gouda cheeses.
Y. Gong*1, S. Govindasamy-Lucey2, J. J. Jaeggi2, M. E. Johnson2, J. A. Lucey1,2, 1University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 2Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research, Madison, WI.

Recently, cheesemakers in the United States have started making direct-salted block Gouda (DG) cheese in contrast to traditional brine-salted Gouda (TG) cheese. This approach allows cheese manufacturers to produce Gouda cheese using existing Cheddar equipment. We compared 6 DG cheeses (DG1-DG6) and 1 TG by analyzing for compositional, proteolysis, functional and sensory properties. All 7 cheeses were commercially produced from different facilities and received at 3 mo. They were ripened at 4°C and tested at 3, 6, and 9 mo. There were compositional differences between cheeses; the DG cheeses had higher moisture (39.1–44.2%), salt (1.5–1.9%), but lower fat (29.0–32.2%), and protein (21.5–24.4%) compared with TG (moisture = 34.7%, salt = 1.4%, fat = 33.8%, protein = 26.2%). TG had the highest pH values (5.44–5.56) during ripening. Cheese functionality was assessed using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology and texture profile analysis (TPA). Data were statistically evaluated using Duncan’s test. There were differences (P < 0.05) in the crossover (melt) temperature and TPA hardness values among the DG and TG cheeses. Flavor, texture, shred properties, and pizza performance were evaluated by trained panelists using quantitative descriptive analysis. TG cheese had different sensory properties from DG cheeses; TG cheese was associated with firmness, buttery and sweet flavors. Principal component analysis (PCA) analyses on shred properties showed that TG was grouped with DG1 and DG3, and separated from others based on higher shred length and straightness values (PC1+PC2 > 95%). These cheeses also had higher TPA hardness and melt temperature. The rest of the DG cheeses were associated with more matting, surface oil and shred adhesiveness. The performance of the cheeses differed when melted on pizzas. TG had the lowest blister color value (~1.9) compared with DG (5.0–9.8) during ripening. PCA analyses showed that there were 4 groupings based on the melt properties; TG and DG3 were grouped together and associated with more skinning, higher hardness values and more free oil (PC1+PC2 > 85%). Overall, the results showed there was variation among the DG cheeses.

Key Words: commercial Gouda cheese, cheese performance