Abstract #M76

# M76
Effect of breed on the physicochemical and textural characteristics of South African artisanal cheese.
F. Nyamakwere1, E. Raffrenato1, M. Busti3, P. A. Gouws2, K. Dzama1, G. Esposito*1, 1Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2Department of Food Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 3Caseificio della famiglia Busti, Fauglia, Pisa, Italy.

Breed plays an important role on milk quality and consequently, cheese quality. Little work has been done to evaluate the quality of artisanal cheeses produced from different breeds in rural small-scale farms in South Africa. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of 3 breeds i.e., Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey, and cross (cross of both), on cheese physicochemical and textural characteristics. The cheeses were manufactured in 2 different farms using raw milk under artisanal processing conditions. Aging (60 d) was conducted in 2 different chambers, that is, a control (10–12°C and humidity 80–90%) and a traditional simulation (18°C and humidity 60–70%) using a domestic air conditioner and humidifier which are affordable and accessible by rural farmers. Data were analyzed using a factorial arrangement of treatments with breed and chamber, and their interaction, as fixed factors and farm as random factor. As expected, Jerseys yielded more (P < 0.05) cheese (8.6 ± 0.37) compared with HF (8.1 ± 0.40) and cross (8.2 ± 0.40) per 100 L of milk. The cheeses from the 3 breeds showed differences (P < 0.05) on their initial (d 1) values for moisture, water activity, protein, fat, free fatty acids (FFA’s), water soluble nitrogen (WSN)/total N (TN) %, salt, hardness, chewiness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle. After aging, the HF compared with Jersey and cross, had higher (P < 0.05) ash% (3.9 ± 0.13 vs 3.5 ± 0.10 vs 3.3 ± 0.14), fat% (36.6 ± 1.47 vs 31.5 ± 1.14 vs 32.4 ± 1.50) and salt% (2.0 ± 0.11 s 1.4 ± 0.08 vs 1.5 ± 0.13) content, whereas pH, protein, FFA’s, non-protein N, WSN and WSN/TN of all cheeses were similar between breeds. For color, breed only had an effect (P < 0.05) on the yellowness which was higher in the Jersey (27.3 ± 0.33) compared with Holstein (23.1 ± 0.72) and cross (23.2 ± 0.51). Cheese from mixed bred had higher (P < 0.05) hardness and chewiness. There were interactions between the breed and aging chamber, with HF in the traditional chamber having lower (P < 0.05) moisture and water activity, and higher (P < 0.05) protein and fat content. These results are important for rural small-scale cheese producers to select ideal breeds and aging conditions for optimal production.

Key Words: breed, cheese quality, small scale farmers